Monday, December 10, 2012

Hardware & Networking Question

1:- What is the use of IGMP Protocol?
Internet Group Management Protocol:- It allow internet host to participate in multicasting. The IGMP messages are used to learn which hosts is part of which multicast groups. T he mechanism also allow a host to inform its local router, that it wants to receive messages.
2:- What are Ping and tracert?
Ping and tracert are the commands used to send the information to some remote to computer to receive some information. Information is sent and receives by packets. Ping I Particularly used to check the system is in network or not. It also gives packets lost information. In windows ping command is written as ping ip_address tracert is called as trace route. It is track or traces the path the packet takes from the computer where the command is given until the destination. In windows ping command is written as tracert ip_address.
3:- Explain RSVP. How does it work?
Resource reservation protocol is used to reserve resources across a network. It is used for requesting a specific Quality of Services (QoS) from the network. This is done by carrying the request (that need a reservation of the resource) of the host throughout the network. It visits each node in the network. RSVP used two local modules for reservation for resource. Admission control module confirms if there are sufficient available resources while policy module checks for the permission of making a reservation. RSVP offers scalability. On a successful completion of both checks RSVP used the packet classifier and packet scheduler for the desired Qos requested.
4:- Explain the concept of DHCP.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is used assigning IP addresses to computers in a network. The IP addresses are assigned dynamically. Certainly, using DHCP, the computer will have a different IP address
Every time it is connected to the network. In some cases the IP address may change even when the computer is in network. The mean that DHCP leases out the IP address to the computer for some time.   Clear advantage of DHCP is that the software can be used to manage IP address rather than the administrator.
5:- What are the difference between a Domain and a WrokGroup?
In a Domain, one or more computer can be server to manage a network. On the other hand in a workgroup all computers are peer having no control on each other. In a Domain, User does not need a account to logon a specific computer if an account is available on the domain. In a workgroup user need to have account to logon every computer. In a domain Computer can be on different network. In a workgroup all computer need to be part of same network.
6:- Explain how NAT work?
Network address translation translates an IP address used in a network to another IP address knows within another network. A NAT table is maintained for global to local and local to mapping of IP, s. NAT can be statically defined or dynamically translate from a pool of addresses. The NAT router is responsible for translating traffic coming and leaving the network. NAT prevent Malicious actively initiated by outside host from reaching local hosts by being dependent on a machine on the local network to initiate any connection to host on the other side of router.
7:- What is PPP Protocol? Explain PPP packet formet.
Point to Point protocol help to communication two computers with each other over a serial cable, phone line,  or other fiber optic lines. E.g. Connection an internet services provider and a host. PPP also provide authentication. PPP operates by sending request packet and waiting for acknowledge packet that accepts, reject or try to change the request. The protocol is also use to negotiate on network address or compression option between the nodes.
Packet Formet:-
Flag formet: 1 Byte: - indicates from beginning or end
Address field: 1 byte:- used for broadcasting address (destination address)
Control field: 1 byte:- used as a control byte
Protocol field:-1 or 2 byte:-setting of protocol in information field of (datagram)
Information:- o or more byte
8:-What is IP spoofing and how can it be prevented?
IP spoofing is a mechanism used by attacker to gain unauthorized access to a system here the intruder sends message to a computer with IP address indicating that the message is coming from a trusted host. This is done by forging the header so  it contain a different address and make it appear that the packet was sent by a different machine.
Prevention:-
Packet Filtering: - to allow packet with recognized formats to enter the network using special router and firewalls. Encrypting the  session.
9:-Explain IP Datagram, Fragmentation and MTU.
IP datagram can be used to describe a portion of IP data. Each IP datagram has set of field arrange in a order. The order is a specific which help to decode and read the stream easily. IP datagram has like version, Header length, Type of service, Total length, checksum, flag , Protocol, time of live , identification, Source and destination IP address, padding, option and payload.
MTU- Maximum transmission unit uses the size of larger packet that a communication protocol can pass the size can be fixed by some standard or decided at the time of connection.
Fragmentation is a process to break IP packets in small pieces. Fragmentation is needed when the datagram is larger than the MTU. Each fragment comes in a datagram in itself and transmitted independently from source. When received by destination they are reassembled.
10:- What is an application gateway?
An application gateway is a program that runs on firewall between to network. An application gateway is used to establishing connection between client program and destination services. The client negotiates with the gateway to communication with the services of destination. Here gateway can be called a proxy other between proxy and destination service. Connection takes palace behind the firewall.
11:- Explain the circuit level gateway?
A circuit level gateway is used to find if a session in TCP handshaking is legitimate or not. It can be considered as a layer between application layer and transport layer. They protect the information of private network their protect. Circuit level gateway does not filter packets.
12:-What is the”gateway of last resort”?
A gateway of last resort or default gateway is a route used by a router when other know route exist to transmit the IP packets. Know routes are present in routing table. Hence any route not known by the routing table is forwarded to the default route. Each router which receive the packet will treat the packet same way. If the route is known, packet will be forwarded to the known route
13:-What is LAN?
LAN is a computer network that spans relatively a small area. Most LAN are connected with a building or group of buildings. However a LAN can be connected with other LAN over any distance via telephone line or radio waves. A system of LAN connected via this process is called WAN. Most LAN,s  connect workstation and personal computer. Each Node in LAN have it own CPU with which execute program but it is usable to access data from anywhere on the LAN. This means any user in network can share device, data. LAN can be also use to communicate with each other by sending email, or chatting.
14:-How would you Enable or Disable the Firewall in Windows XP?
1. Click Start; click Run, type Firewall.cpl, and then click OK.
2. On the General tab, click on (recommended).
3. Click OK.
15:- How would you Start or Stop a Windows Service?
To open Services, click Start, click Control Panel, click Performance and
Maintenance, click Administrative Tools, and then double-click Services.
16:- How can you check the IP address of your computer?
􀀀 Open Network and Sharing Center by clicking the Start button , clicking
Control Panel, clicking Network and Internet, and then clicking Network and Sharing Center.
 Under Connection, click View status.
Run- CMD - ok-IPCONFIG/ALL
17:- How to Bookmark a webpage?
1) Open Mozilla Firefox web browser.
2) Go to the web page that you want to bookmark.
3) Click on "Bookmarks". You can find it at the top of the screen next to "History".
4) Click on "Bookmark this page".
5) Enter name, folder and tags.
6) Click "Done".
You can retrieve the bookmark by following the steps given below.
1) Open Mozilla Firefox web browser.
2) Click on "Bookmarks".
3) Click on "Recently bookmarked".
18: -􀀀 How to access the Windows System Registry?
Run 􀂱regedit-ok
19:- Where are the Temp files located and how would you remove
Them?
􀂱 Run - %temp% -ok
20:- Name some difference between Windows XP and Windows Vista.
What are their System Requirements?
Bit locker Option available Windows XP has. No Bit locker
Option
- Bit locker drive encryption,
Bit locker on volume
Prevents hard drive from hackers
2. Windows Vista has Windows Defender tool Windows XP has No
Windows Defender tool available
prevents from spyware & unwanted
S/W installing on computer
3. Windows Vista has Parental control Feature Windows XP has
No Parental control Feature
- This option enables parents to restrict
Children􀂶s which sites, games .software
To use & not
The shutdown and the start up is very fast in Windows 7 when compared to the Windows XP
􀂇 there are not much graphical components present in the windows XP but Windows 7
Provides  good Graphical User Interface (GUI).
􀂇 In windows 7 there is no necessity for the drivers to be installed but in Windows XP it is
Necessary to install drivers.
􀂇 The Kernel of windows 7 is very good when compared to the Windows XP.
􀂇 User defined themes can be implemented in Windows 7 but in Windows XP themes cannot
be created by the user.
􀂇 The windows defender in Windows 7 provides maximum security to the operating system
but in Windows XP this feature is not available.
21:- What is Safe Mode?
Safe mode is a troubleshooting option for Windows that starts your computer in a
Limited state . Only the basic files and drivers necessary to run Windows are started. The words
"Safe Mode" appears in the corners of the display to identify which Windows mode you are
Using. If an existing problem does not reappear when you start in safe mode, you can eliminate
The default settings and basic device drivers as possible causes.
If you don't know the cause of the problem, you can use the process of elimination to help you
Find the problem. Try starting all of the programs you commonly use, including the programs in
Your Startup folder, one by one, to see if a program might be the cause of the problem.
If your computer automatically starts in safe mode without prompting, a problem with your
Computer might be preventing Windows from starting normally. If you think the cause of the
Problem might be a recently installed program or device, try using System Restore. For more
Information, see What is System Restore?
22:- What is a MODEM?
A modem links your home network to the Internet through your Internet Service
Provider (ISP). The high speed types of data outside of your home aren't suitable for your direct
Use, so modems convert the data into digital Ethernet, which all the network equipment in your
Home can use.
The Internet services that are outside your home (or business) which are supplied by your ISP are
Either DSL, cable, dial-up, or satellite. Your ISP gives you a modem that works with their
system. These modems may be built by NETGEAR. More advanced users may want to replace a
Non-NETGEAR modem with one of ours.
23:- What is SMPS?
A Switched-mode power supply (also Switching-mode power supply, SMPS, or
Simply Switcher) is an electronic Power Supply Unit (PSU) that incorporates a switching
Regulator  in order to provide the required output voltage. An SMPS is actually a power converter
That transmits power from a source (e.g., a battery or the electrical power grid) to a load (e.g., a
Personal computer) with ideally no loss. The function of the converter is to provide a reliable
output voltage often at a different level than the input voltage.
When mechanical shafts are rotating, a simple gear train can deliver power to a shaft at one
speed from a shaft at a different speed. However, fluid power can be converted from a source
with one pressure􀂱flow ratio to another pressure􀂱flow level without rotation by using the
switching action of a hydraulic ram. Similarly, when AC power is being delivered from an AC
source, a simple transformer can be used to convert power at one voltage level to power at
another voltage level with low losses. Likewise, the switched action of an SMPS can convert DC
power with low losses.
24:-Type of RAM?
SRAM : Static random access memory uses multiple transistors, typically four
to six, for each memory cell but doesn't have a capacitor in each cell. It is used primarily for
cache.
DRAM : Dynamic random access memory has memory cells with a paired transistor and
capacitor requiring constant refreshing.
FPM DRAM : Fast page mode dynamic random access memory was the original form of
DRAM. It waits through the entire process of locating a bit of data by column and row and then
reading the bit before it starts on the next bit. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is
approximately 176 MBps.
EDO DRAM : Extended data-out dynamic random access memory does not wait for all of
the processing of the first bit before continuing to the next one. As soon as the address of the first
bit is located, EDO DRAM begins looking for the next bit. It is about five percent faster than
FPM. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 264 MBps.
SDRAM : Synchronous dynamic random access memory takes advantage of the burst
mode concept to greatly improve performance. It does this by staying on the row containing the
requested bit and moving rapidly through the columns, reading each bit as it goes. The idea is
that most of the time the data needed by the CPU will be in sequence. SDRAM is about five
percent faster than EDO RAM and is the most common form in desktops today. Maximum
transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 528 MBps.
 DDR SDRAM : Double data rate synchronous dynamic RAM is just like SDRAM except
that is has higher bandwidth, meaning greater speed. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is
approximately 1,064 MBps (for DDR SDRAM 133 MHZ).
RDRAM : Rambus dynamic random access memory is a radical departure from the
previous DRAM architecture. Designed by Rambus, RDRAM uses a Rambus in-line memory
module (RIMM), which is similar in size and pin configuration to a standard DIMM. What
makes RDRAM so different is its use of a special high-speed data bus called the Rambus
channel. RDRAM memory chips work in parallel to achieve a data rate of 800 MHz, or 1,600
MBps. Since they operate at such high speeds, they generate much more heat than other types of
chips. To help dissipate the excess heat Rambus chips are fitted with a heat spreader, which
looks like a long thin wafer. Just like there are smaller versions of DIMMs, there are also SORIMMs,
designed for notebook computers.
25:- Difference between DDR, DDR2,DDR3?
DRAM Type || Transfer Rate(MT/s) || Voltage
DDR􀀀 || 200􀂱400􀀀 || 2.5/2.6
DDR2 || 400􀂱1066 || 1.8
DDR3 || 800􀂱2133 || 1.5
26:- What is an Operating System?
Answer13 - An operating system, or OS, is a software program that enables the computer
Hardware to communicate and operate with the computer software. Without a computer
Operating system, a computer would be useless. Mode are in operating system is GUI,
Multiuser, Multitask.
26:- Name a few ports in your computer?
USB, IEEE 1394, ps/2, PS/2, Ethernet port, lpti ,vga, line in microphone,
Game jack.
27:- What is a Dial-up internet connection?
Answer15- Dialup internet service is a service that allows connectivity to the internet through
a standard telephone line. By connecting the telephone line to the modem in your computer and
Inserting the other end into the phone jack, and configuring the computer to dial a specific
Number provided by your internet service provider (ISP) you are able to access the internet on
Your computer.
28:- What is a Broadband internet connection?
Broadband is a term that is used consistently with different types of Internet
Connections. Generally, it is referred to Internet connections over fiber optic cables rather than
Telephone lines. Broadband in telecommunications means a wide range of frequencies that are
Available to transmit information. This eventually means that, wider the range of frequencies
Available, higher the amount of information that can be sent at any given point of time. For an
easy way to picture a broadband Internet connection compared to a narrowband Internet
Connection, think of a road highway. With an one-lane highway (narrowband), only one car can
travel at a time, however, with broadband you can have a highway with 6 or 8 lanes, allowing
more traffic to pass concurrently.
29:- What is a Wireless Internet Connection?
Wireless Internet access, sometimes referred to as a "hot spot," is a local area
network (LAN) run by radio waves rather than wires. Wireless Internet access is broadcast from
a central hub, which is a hard-wired device that actually brings in the Internet connection. The
hub, located at the main computer system or server, broadcasts Internet connectivity to clients,
which is basically anyone within receiving range who is equipped with a wireless LAN card.
30:- What is Last Known Good Configuration?
The "Last Known Good" configuration is one of the available startup options in
Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. It starts the
computer by using the registry information and drivers that Windows saved at the last shutdown.
Any changes made since the last successful startup will be lost. The Last Known Good
Configuration startup option allows you to recover from a problem by reversing driver and
registry changes made since you last started Windows XP/2000/2003. Windows does not update
Last Known Good Configuration information in the registry until the operating system
successfully restarts in normal mode and a user logs on and is authenticated.
31:- What is Device Manager?
Device Manager is an OS feature that lets you view and change the properties of
all devices attached to your computer. To get to the device manager in Windows, right click on
the My computer icon, choose properties, then click on the device manager tab. From there you
can select a variety of management options.
32:- What are Cookies?
A "cookie" is a small piece of information sent by a web server to store on a web
Browser so it can later be read back from that browser. This is useful for having the browser
Remember some specific information.
33:-What is the Motherboard Voltage?
-12 V: This voltage is used on some types of serial port circuits, -5 V: A now
archaic voltage, -5 V was used on some of the earliest PCs for floppy controllers. 0 V: Zero volts
is the ground of the PC's electrical system, +5 V: On older form factor systems (Baby AT and
earlier) , this is the voltage used to run the motherboard, the CPU. +12 V: This voltage is used
primarily to power disk drive motors.
34:-What is Power DVD?
Power DVD is a software decoder that will allow you to watch high quality MPEG-1
and MPEG-2 video contents on you PC. All you need is a DVD drive on your PC, and
Power DVD will enable playback of DVDs, VCDs, SVCDs and miniDVDs as well as other video
and audio files.
35:-what is MSconfig?
MSconfig, or System Configuration Utility, is a system. configuration utility
Bundled with all Microsoft Windows. operating systems released after 1995 except Windows
2000. Windows 2000 users can download the utility separately, however. This tool modifies
which programs run at startup, edits certain configuration files, and simplifies controls over
Windows services.
36:- What is the Blue Screen of Death and what could be it's causes?
The 'blue screen of death' is very simply a critical system error which prevents the
system from turning on to restrain further damage.
Blue screens on NT-based Windows systems can be caused by poorly written device drivers or
Malfunctioning hardware. In the Win9x era, incompatible DLLs or bugs in the kernel of the
operating system could also cause blue screens. Blue screens can also be caused by physical faults
such as faulty memory, power supply issues, overheating of components, or hardware running
beyond its specification limits. Blue screens have been present in all Windows-based operating
systems since Windows 3.1; earlier, OS/2 and MS-DOS suffered the Black Screen of Death, and
early builds of Windows Vista displayed the Red Screen of Death after a boot loader error.
Unfortunately there is no fixed cure. you must find the source and repair it, however this can be
only done in safe mode and even then it is hard to find. However, it is not physically strained
then the following has always been proven successful; Rebooting from the Microsoft Windows
CD. After booting to the CD, it may be possible to correct the problem by performing a repair
install or by using the Recovery Console (with CHKDSK).
36:- Name some differences between Desktops and Laptops?
A laptop, also called a notebook,[1][2] is a personal computer for mobile use.[3][4] A
laptop integrates most of the typical components of a desktop computer, including a display, a
keyboard, a pointing device (a touchpad, also known as a trackpad, and/or a pointing stick) and
speakers into a single unit. A laptop is powered by mains electricity via an AC adapter, and can
be used away from an outlet using a rechargeable battery.
37:- What is Cold Boot and Warm Boot?
Cold Boot -You perform a cold boot every time you turn on the power switch of
your computer. To "boot" the computer means to start it up and reset the memory and BIOS.
Pressing the Ctrl-Alt-Delete keys simultaneously while the computer is running performs a warm
boot. You may need to do this if the computer stops responding because of memory problems or
the "Blue Screen of Death" appears. The computer needs to be reset before you can continue. If
the warm boot fails to restart the computer, you will need to resort to a cold boot by shutting off
the power switch, waiting ten seconds and then turning it back on.
Warm Boot-Refers to restarting a computer that is already turned on via the operating system.
Restarting it returns the computer to its initial state. A warm boot is sometimes necessary when a
program encounters an error from which it cannot recover. On PCs, you can perform a warm
boot by pressing the Control, Alt, and Delete keys simultaneously. On Macs, you can perform a
warm boot by pressing the Restart button.
38:-What does X mean in the term 16X on the CD/DVD ROM?
CD ROM or DVD ROM Drivers, X stands for speed .... Below is the standard
Transfer rates and access times of the majority of CD-ROM drives. The below figures are
Averages you can expect to find on each speed of CD-ROM drive. These averages may be slower
or faster than your CD-ROM drive and to where the CD-ROM is accessing the data from the
CD-ROM.
39:- What are PCI Slots?
 PCI Express (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express), officially
Abbreviated as PCIe, is a computer expansion card standard designed to replace the older PCI,
PCI-X and AGP bus standards. PCIe has numerous improvements over the aforementioned bus
standards, including higher maximum system bus throughput, lower I/O pin count and smaller
physical footprint, PCI) is a computer bus for attaching hardware devices in a computer. PCI
Cards used in PCs include: network cards, sound cards, modems, extra ports such as USB or
Serial, TV tuner cards and disk controllers. PCI video cards replaced ISA and VESA cards
40:- What are the types of Printers?
Printers can be divided into two main groups, impact printer and non-impact
printer. Impact printer produces text and images when tiny wire pins on print head strike the
ink ribbon by physically contacting the paper. Non-impact printer produces text and graphics on
paper without actually striking the paper. Printers can also be categorized based on the print
method or print technology. The most popular ones are inkjet printer, laser printer, dot-matrix
printer and thermal printer. Among these, only dot-matrix printer is impact printer
and the others are non-impact printers. Some printers are named because they are designed for
specific functions, such as photo printers, portable printers and all-in-one / multifunction
printers. Photo printers and portable printers usually use inkjet print method whereas
multifunction printers may use inkjet or laser print method.
41:- What is the difference between DDR1, DDR2 and DDR3
memories.
SD RAM: stands for synchronous dynamic random access memory. SDRAM is
Single Data Rate meaning that SDRAM can accept one command and transfer one word of data
per clock cycle. As mentioned above SDRAM's have synchronous interface therefore they
depend on the computer clock signals to perform operations. Typical speeds of SDRAM are 100
and 133 MHz
DDR SDRAM:
DDR SDRAM stands for double data rate synchronous dynamic random access memory. DDR
RAM transfers data twice per clock cycle, hence the name double data rate. DDR clock speeds
range between 200 MHz (DDR-200) and 400 MHz (DDR-400). DDR-200 transfers 1600 MB/s,
while DDR-400 transfers 3200 MB/s.
DDR2 SDRAM:
DDR2 SDRAM stands for double data rate 2 synchronous dynamic random access
memory.DDR2 is twice as fast as DDR which means twice as much data is carried to the module
for each clock cycle. Also due to the design improvements DDR2 consumes less power as
compared to the DDR memory. DDR2 speeds range between 400 MHz (DDR2-400) and 800
MHz (DDR2-800). DDR2-400 transfers 3200 MB/s. DDR2-800 transfers 6400 MB/s.
DDR3 SDRAM:
So by now after reading the above it is quite obvious what DDR3 SDRAM stands for, double
data rate 3 synchronous dynamic random access memory. In theory DDR3 is supposed to act
twice as fast as DDR2 memories. Thus DDR3 speeds range between 800 MHz (DDR3-800) and
1600 MHz (DDR3-1600). DDR3-800 transfers 6400 MB/s; DDR3-1600 transfers 12800 MB/s.
42:-What are the types of Hard-disk drives?
Hard Disk Drive - It is a non-volatile storage device which stores digitally encoded
data on rapidly rotating platters with magnetic surface.
Types of HDD :
1. IDE : Integrated Drive Electronics. IDE drives are also known as PATA drives( Parallel
advance technology attachment )
2. SATA : Serial advance technology attachment
3. SCSI : Small Computer System Interface. SCSI is pronounced as skuzzy.
4. SAS : Serial Attached SCSI
43:- What are Blue Ray discs?
Blue-ray Disc (official abbreviation BD) is an optical disc storage medium
designed to supersede the DVD format
44:-If a mouse is not working, how will you troubleshoot?
Make sure that the mouse is connected physically to the correct port
and that it is not loose. 􀀀 Check the mouse wire to make sure it has not been excessively
Twisted, bent or damaged in any way. 􀀀 If you have another mouse that you can try in place of
This one, try swapping them and see if the problem goes away. Similarly, you might want to try
Your mouse on another PC and see if it works. (Remember that drivers are often specific to
Certain types of mice; you want to swap with another mouse of the same type, using the same
Interface, either serial or PS/2). 􀀀 If this is a new PC, check this section for troubleshooting
possible general problems. In particular, there may be a loose or incorrectly connected internal
cable to the COM port that you are using for the mouse. 􀀀 If you are using a PS/2 style mouse,
make sure it is not connected to the (identically-sized) PS/2 keyboard connector. This of course
will also make the keyboard not work properly. 􀀀 If you are using a serial mouse, you may have
a problem with the serial port itself. Resource conflicts and other problems with the serial port
are fairly common.
45:- What is Disk Cleanup?
Disk Cleanup (cleanmgr.exe) is a computer maintenance utility included in
Microsoft Windows designed to free up disk space on a computer's hard drive. The utility first
Searches and analyzes the hard drive for files that are no longer of any use, and then removes the
Unnecessary files. There are a number of different file categories that Disk Cleanup targets when
Performing the initial disk analysis:
· Compression of old files
· Temporary Internet files
· Temporary Windows file
· Downloaded Program files
· Recycle Bin
· Removal of unused applications or optional Windows components
· Setup Log files
· Offline files
46:-What is Disk Defragmentation?
Disk Defragmenter is a utility in Microsoft Windows designed to increase access
Speed by rearranging files stored on a disk to occupy contiguous storage locations, a technique
Called defragmentation. Defragmenting a disk minimizes head travel, which reduces the time it
Takes to read files from and write files to the disk.
47:- What would you do if a PC is not turning on?
Answer37- first you see that system smps is getting power and the system got power
supply. after that you can check hard disk is properly connected .check the hardware they are
connected properly. If you all hardware is connected properly the see your front  panel on off
switch is working well if this is to working well the you will check about OS  is not corrupted then
repair your window .
48:-What is a Heat Sink?
A component designed to lower the temperature of an electronic device by
dissipating heat into the surrounding air. All modern CPUs require a heat sink. Some also require
a fan. A heat sink without a fan is called a passive heat sink; a heat sink with a fan is called an
active heat sink. Heat sinks are generally made of an aluminum alloy and often have fins.
49:-What is a UPS?
Short for uninterruptible power supply, a power supply that includes a battery to
Maintain power in the event of a power outage. Typically, a UPS keeps a computer running for
Several minutes after a power outage, enabling you to save data that is in RAM and shut down
The computer gracefully. Many UPSs now offer a software component that enables you to
Automate backup and shut down procedures in case there's a power failure while you're away
from the computer.
50:- What is the difference between SATA and PATA Hard-Disk
Drives?
PATA is slow, with max transfer speed of 133 MBps while SATA is currently at
400 or 500 MBps. SATA means-serial advanced technology attachment
PATA-parallel advanced technology attachment. sata will have 7 pin interface, pata will use IDE
interface of 40 pins and ultra IDE will have 80 pins. the main diff is data transferred speed. SATA-
600 MBps,1 bit is transferred at one time..PATA-100 MBps,16 bits are transferred at one time.
51:- What would you do if your system is running slow?
Clear out your Temporary files, Defrag your Hard Drive, Reduce the number of
programmes that are Auto Starting, Disable your Indexing Service, Check the amount of free
space you have on your Hard Drive, Remove unnecessary programmes, Reduce your System
Restore Points, Clean temporary files .See your system is not over heating ,may be any hardware
is loses.
52:-What are Plug & Play devices?
Universal Serial bus (USB)
IEEE 1394
Modems
Disk drives
CD-ROM drives
Digital video disc (DVD) drives
Printers
Network adapters
Keyboards
Video adapter cards
Monitors
Game controller
53:-Difference between IE6 & IE7
IE6 alert dialog title is 􀂳Microsoft Internet Explorer􀂴 and for IE7 the alert dialog
Title is 􀂳Windows Internet explorer, IE7 supports multiple tabs, The way IE7 present certificate
Error is completely different from way IE6 does it,
54:- What is the difference between a Serial and a Parallel Port?
Parallel Port and serial port are both used for connecting external devices to the
Computer. A Serial connection is a sequential one way connection over a wire while a Parallel
Connection is a way to speed up the connection by allowing the transfer of more data at the same
time in the same direction and over multiple wires. In serial connection, there are two data lines:
Transmission Line (a single wire takes information out) and Receive Line (single wire will
bring information in) Some bits such as start bit, stop bit and parity bits to detect errors are used
in serial ports while in parallel port, all 8 bits are sent to the port at a time and indication is sent
in another line. There are some data lines, control and handshaking lines in parallel port.
Parallel ports are faster but are not used for long distance communication. This is because
parallel ports needs a number of transmission lines. The reason, why the serial port results in
Slower transfer is that the packets are arranged in a queue first while in case of parallel ports;
more bits are sent as the bits are not to be translated as in the case of serial ports.
Parallel Port and serial port are both used for connecting external devices to the computer.
A Serial connection is a sequential one way connection over a wire while a Parallel connection is
a way to speed up the connection by allowing the transfer of more data at the same time in the
Same direction and over multiple wires. In serial connection, there are two data lines:
Transmission Line (a single wire takes information out) and Receive Line (single wire
will bring information in)
Some bits such as start bit, stop bit and parity bits to detect errors are used in serial ports while in
Parallel port, all 8 bits are sent to the port at a time and indication is sent in another line. There
are some data lines, control and handshaking lines in parallel port.
Parallel ports are faster but are not used for long distance communication. This is because
Parallel ports needs a number of transmission lines. The reason, why the serial port results in
slower transfer is that the packets are arranged in a queue first while in case of parallel ports;
more bits are sent as the bits are not to be translated as in the case of serial ports.
Parallel ports usually work on lower frequency to avoid any crosstalk. Parallel ports are usually
Purple in color while serial ports come in light green color. Most of the serial lines will be used
for control functions and grounding functions while few parallel pins (usually 8 pins) are used
for sending data.
55:-What do you know about the PING Command?
Ping is a computer network administration utility used to test the reach ability of a
host on an Internet Protocol (IP) network and to measure the round-trip time for messages sent
From the originating host to a destination computer. The name comes from active sonar
Terminology.
Ping operates by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo request packets to the
target host and waiting for an ICMP response. In the process it measures the time from
transmission to reception (round-trip time)[1] and records any packet loss
56:- What is Troubleshooting?
Troubleshooting is a form of problem solving, often applied to repair failed
products or processes. It is a logical, systematic search for the source of a problem so that it can
be solved, and so the product or process can be made operational again. Troubleshooting is
needed to develop and maintain complex systems where the symptoms of a problem can have
many possible causes. Troubleshooting is used in many fields such as engineering, system
Administration, electronics, automotive repair, and diagnostic medicine. Troubleshooting requires
identification of the malfunction(s) or symptoms within a system. Then, experience is commonly
used to generate possible causes of the symptoms. Determining which cause is most likely is
often a process of elimination - eliminating potential causes of a problem. Finally,
Troubleshooting requires confirmation that the solution restores the product or process to its
working state
57:- What is a Scanner?
A scanner is a device that captures images from photographic prints, posters,
magazine pages, and similar sources for computer editing and display. Scanners come in handheld,
feed-in, and flatbed types and for scanning black-and-white only, or color
58:-What are the important port numbers in Windows? (E.g. SMTP,
HTTP, POP3..
Let's start with the basics. In the TCP/IP protocol stack, messages associated with
the common application protocols that most of us are familiar with 􀂲 such as HTTP for the
Web; SMTP, POP, and IMAP for e-mail; Telnet and SSH for remote logon; and FTP for file
transfers 􀂲 operate over the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol
(UDP); TCP and UDP messages, in turn, are carried inside Internet Protocol (IP) packets. The
primary difference between TCP and UDP is that TCP is connection-oriented and UDP is
connectionless. When using TCP, then, two hosts must first establish a logical connection before
they can exchange data (analogous to establishing a telephone connection) while hosts using
UDP do not require a logical connection before the exchange of information (analogous to
sending a letter through the postal service).
Both TCP and UDP employ port numbers to identify the higher layer applications at the hosts
that are communicating with each other. End-to-end data communications on the Internet, in fact,
are uniquely identified by the source and destination host IP addresses and the source and
Destination TCP/UDP port numbers.
TCP/IP applications generally employ a client/server model, exemplified by the relationship
between your Web client software (i.e., the browser) and a Web server; the user "points" their
browser at the Web server which is usually listening on port 80. Port numbers can take on a
value between 1 and 65535, with server applications generally being assigned a value below
1024. There are a large number of so-called well-known ports, including:
· TCP 20 and 21 (File Transfer Protocol, FTP)
· TCP 22 (Secure Shell, SSH)
· TCP 23 (Telnet)
· TCP 25 (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, SMTP)
· TCP and UDP 53 (Domain Name System, DNS)
· UDP 69 (Trivial File Transfer Protocol, tftp)
· TCP 79 (finger)
· TCP 80 (Hypertext Transfer Protocol, HTTP)
· TCP 110 (Post Office Protocol v3, POP3)
· TCP 119 (Network News Protocol, NNTP)
· UDP 161 and 162 (Simple Network Management Protocol, SNMP)
· UDP 443 (Secure Sockets Layer over HTTP, https)
59:- What is LDAP?
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
Lightweight Directory - Directories are kind of like a database but not really. A directory is a
specialized database that is optimized for lookups. Unlike a traditional RDBMS, LDAP is not
designed to show complex relationships between relations. Imagine if 99% of your actions on
were going to be simple "selects", and you wanted anyone, anywhere to be able to do these
selects over the Internet. This is where LDAP excels. Examples of directories are the TV Guide,
the phone book, a library card catalog, and DNS. "Give me the phone number of John
Smith.""Give me all the tv shows that are on tonight on the Sci-Fi channel."Access Protocol -
LDAP is an outgrowth of the x.500 standard. LDAP is an open standard, unlike many other
proprietary directory solutions. Most of the directory-like solutions that were out on the market
are now very similar to LDAP. Some of these solution providers, Sun and Microsoft specifically,
have designed JNDI and ADSI APIs so that you can connect with any kind of directory service.
This is kind of like ODBC or JDBC is to an RDBMS.
60:- What is active directory?
Active Directory (AD) is a structure used on computers and servers running the
Microsoft Windows operating system (OS) . AD is used to store network, domain, and user
Information and was originally created by Microsoft in 1996
Active Directory is used by computer administrators to manage end user computer software
Packages, files, and accounts on medium to large-sized organizations. Instead of visiting every
Single computer client computer to upgrade new software or install Windows patches, the task(s)
Can be accomplished through updated a single object located within an AD forest or tree.
Similarly, AD gives the network administrator the capability to grant or remove access at the
User level for one or many applications or file structures . The two types of 􀂳trusts􀂴 that are
Incorporated into Microsoft Active Directory are one way non-transitive and transitive trusts. In
Transitive trusts the trust extends past two domains in a set tree. In this case, two entities can
Access the other􀂶s domains and trees.
In one way transitive trusts, a user is given access to another domain or tree; however, the other
Domain cannot permit access to further domains. This permission set is similar to the classic
Administrator and end-user case. In this case, the admin can see most trees in the forest to include
an end-user􀂶s domain. The end user; however, cannot access other trees beyond his or her own
Domain.
61:- What is the Maximum Distance that can be covered in a LAN?
Twisted-pair Ethernet is around 300 feet per segment, and can be extended by the
use of hubs and switches.
62:- What is the maximum number of Computers that can be
connected in a Peer-to-Peer Network?
P2p networking type is most commonly used computer networks. This type of
Network is very cost effective but supports lesser number of computers in network. Ten to fifteen
Computers can be connected to each other using p2p networking model without problem, more
Number of computers often create problems. All computers possesses same status within the
network and no computer control any other computer but it self, this network does not have
server to control and monitor. Security level is not towards higher side and each work station it
self is responsible for security. Using p2p models files can be shared among computers. Files
like, videos, audios, pictures, spreadsheets and all digital media can be sent or received with in
the network. Printers, scanners and internet can be shared with in all computers. Below is the
picture showing three computers connected to each other with hub and switch. All computers are
connected to hub through Network adaptor card using Cable and hub or switch is connected to
internet to pass it on to connected computers.. You can see there is no server involved in this
diagram but all individual computers are connecting to hub forming P2P network.
63:- What is the difference between a Switch and a Hub?
Hubs
The term 􀂵hub􀂶 is sometimes used to refer to any piece of network equipment that connects PCs
Together, but it actually refers to a multi-port repeater. This type of device simply passes on
(Repeats) all the information it receives, so that all devices connected to its ports receive that
information. Hubs repeat everything they receive and can be used to extend the network.
However, this can result in a lot of unnecessary traffic being sent to all devices on the network.
Hubs pass on traffic to the network regardless of the intended destination; the PCs to which the
packets are sent use the address information in each packet to work out which packets are meant
for them. In a small network repeating is not a problem but for a larger, more heavily used
network, another piece of networking equipment (such as a switch) may be required to help
reduce the amount of unnecessary traffic being generated.
Switches
Switches control the flow of network traffic based on the address information in each packet. A
switch learns which devices are connected to its ports (by monitoring the packets it receives),
and then forwards on packets to the appropriate port only. This allows simultaneous
Communication across the switch, improving bandwidth .
This switching operation reduces the amount of unnecessary traffic that would have occurred if
The same information had been sent from every port (as with a hub).
Switches and hubs are often used in the same network; the hubs extend the network by providing
more ports, and the switches divide the network into smaller, less congested sections.
64:- I have a Computer which is connected to a network. The
Computer is very slow when it is connected to the network/internet but works
Fine when it is not? What do you think could be the problem?
All the systems must pertain to the same workgroup and must have different static
IP addresses (automatic IP's may conflict and cause crashes);
Carefully check if all the network cables are properly wired, as crossover cables mixed with
Straight ones may cause huge slowdowns on some machines;
If the network uses more than one hub/switch, check if there is no loopback between two hubs. I
once had a problem with a CAT5 cable which was connected to a switch, and someone
Connected the other end to another switch instead of connecting it to another system The network
Still worked but weird things happened during two days before we found the problem.
If there is more than one OS running on the network (such as Win98, Win2k, XP and Vista), you
may try to load the NetBIOS protocol on all the systems;
65:- What is APIPA?
Short for Automatic Private IP Addressing, a feature of later Windows operating
Systems. With APIPA, DHCP clients can automatically self-configure an IP address and subnet
Mask when a DHCP server isn't available. When a DHCP client boots up, it first looks for a
DHCP server in order to obtain an IP address and subnet mask . If the client is unable to find the
Information, it uses APIPA to automatically configure itself with an IP address from a range that
has been reserved especially for Microsoft. The IP address range is 169.254.0.1 through
169.254.255.254. The client also configures itself with a default class B subnet mask of
255.255.0.0. A client uses the self-configured IP address until a DHCP server becomes available.
The APIPA service also checks regularly for the presence of a DHCP server (every five minutes,
According to Microsoft). If it detects a DHCP server on the network, APIPA stops, and the
DHCP server replaces the APIPA networking addresses with dynamically assigned addresses.
66:- What is an IP Address?
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each
device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network that uses the Internet
Protocol for communication.[1] An IP address serves two principal functions: host or network
interface identification and location addressing. The designers of the Internet Protocol defined an
IP address as a 32-bit number[1] and this system, known as Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), is
still in use today.
67:- What is a Subnet Mask?
The word sub network (usually shortened to subnet) has two related meanings. In
the older and more general meaning, it meant one physical network of an internetwork. In the
Internet Protocol (IP), a sub network is a division of a classful network. The rest of this article is
about the second meaning.
Sub netting an IP network allows a single large network to be broken down into what appear
(logically) to be several smaller ones. It was originally introduced before the introduction of
classful network numbers in IPv4, to allow a single site to have a number of local area networks.
Even after the introduction of classful network numbers, sub netting continued to be useful, as it
reduced the number of entries in the Internet-wide routing table (by hiding information about all
the individual subnets inside a site). As a side benefit, it also resulted in reduced network
overhead, by dividing the parts which receive IP broadcasts.
68:- What is ARP?
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol for mapping an Internet Protocol
address (IP address) to a physical machine address that is recognized in the local network. For
example, in IP Version 4, the most common level of IP in use today, an address is 32 bits long.
In an Ethernet local area network, however, addresses for attached devices are 48 bits long. (The
physical machine address is also known as a Media Access Control or MAC address.) A table,
usually called the ARP cache,
Learn More
is used to maintain a correlation between each MAC address and its corresponding IP address.
ARP provides the protocol rules for making this correlation and providing address conversion in
both directions.
69:- What do you understand by the term "Memory Leak"?
A memory leak is when you used some memory and lost the pointer to the
allocation so you can no longer de-allocate that memory. If you still have a pointer to it, you
have high-memory usage, which might be just as bad in terms of what happens to the process but
still different. Just to make things simple I􀂶ll use the term memory leak for both of these from
now. There are two types of memory leaks, the gradual memory leak (where memory
continuously grows at approximately the same rate) and the sudden memory jump. You
troubleshoot them approximately the same way, except for in the latter case you also try to figure
out if something out of the ordinary happened at the time of the jump, such as extreme load on
the server etc.
70:- What is the difference between a STANDBY and ONLINE UPS?
Uninterruptible Power Supplies are there to allow for an ordered shutdown in the
operation of the computer if there is a power failure and contrary to what some may think not
Necessary there to keep the computer running indefinitely . As stated in the Uninterruptible Power
Supplies (UPS) Tutorial, 􀂳An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is an external box containing a
Battery that provides power to a computer and other electronics in case there is a loss of power.
There are two types: standby (offline) and online.􀂴 (1)
It goes on to differentiate between an online and standby UPS. The standby UPS is connected to
an external power source like the computer and as soon as there is a power failure the UPS will
kick in after a few milliseconds. In contract the online UPS sits between the AC power source
and the computer and is continuously converting AC in DC power and supplying this power to
the computer. As soon as there is then a power failure there will be no interruption in the to the
computer as the computer itself is continuously running off DC power.
71:-What is LBA (in Hard-Disk Drives)?
Logical block addressing (LBA) is a common scheme used for specifying the
Location of blocks of data stored on computer storage devices, generally secondary storage
Systems such as hard disks.LBA is a particularly simple linear addressing scheme; blocks are
located by an integer index, with the first block being LBA 0, the second LBA 1, and so on. In
order for LBA to work, it must be supported by the BIOS and operating system, but since it is
also a new way of talking to the hard disk, the disk must support it as well. All newer hard disks
do in fact support LBA, and when auto detected by a BIOS supporting LBA, will be set up to use
that mode.
72:- How many Hard Disks can you install on an E-IDE controller?
An IDE controller can only manage 2 physical devices. You have 1 x HDD, 1 x
CD-RW and 1 x DVD: so you can only put in ONE more.
Question 60- -Fast refers to 10 MHz scsi signal
-Ultra 20 MHz
-Ultra2 40 MHz
-Narrow means a 50 pin connector it sends 8 bit packets.
-Wide means 68 pin connector sends 16 bit packets. Supposedly possible for 32 bit packets but I
am not aware if any devices support this.
Combine one speed term with a width and you get the SCSI name game. If it is not labeled as
Wide or Narrow it probably is Narrow but check the pin connector to see if it 50 pin or 68 pin.
If the device is Wide it will effectively double the amount of data moving along the cable as
compared to a Narrow device.
Theoretical maximum data flow is calculated by multiplying the speed in MHz by the number of
bytes in the packet. 1 for Narrow or 2 for Wide. Thus Fast Narrow is 10 x 1 or 10
megabytes/second, Ultra Wide is 20 x 2 or 40 megabytes/second and the top dog Ultra2Wide is
40x2 or 80MB/second. This is the theoretical max and is not reached very often if ever but
Ultra Wide does handle allot more data allot faster than Fast Narrow.
SCSI standards are a confusing mess of basic compatibility rules for all SCSI devices. SCSI 1
set the initial framework, SCSI 2 added better cdrom support, scanner support and added new
SCSI commands. SCSI 2 also added "Fast" and the original "Wide" which was 2 cables. SCSI 3
improves the SCSI commands again, adds better support for Cdrom again, and set the standard
for "Wide" being a single cable. SCSI 3 also adds "firmware and fiber channel devices" I am
guessing that the Ultras are part of SCSI 3. The SCSI 3 should be backward compatible with
SCSI 2, but that is no guarantee.
The SCSI standards have always been set way later than the devices for that standard. The
Ultra Wide devices using a single cable were out on the market way before SCSI 3 was defined.
The answers about SCSI 123 is not that relevant to the user but Fast, Ultra, Wide and Narrow are
very important. Cdrom and relatives do ok on a SCSI setup that is 20 MB/sec and there is no
urgent need to get Ultra Wide devices unless your SCSI controller and cable are all 68 pin.
Hard drives benefit from the Ultra and Wide as they have the access speed and sustained data rate
to pump out 15-20 MB/sec, running a good hard drive on a Fast and/or Narrow SCSI is like a
sports car in a traffic jam.
73:- What is SAS?
(pronounced as separate letters) Short for Serial Attached SCSI, an evolution of
parallel SCSI into a point-to-point serial peripheral interface in which controllers are linked
directly to disk drives. SAS is a performance improvement over traditional SCSI because SAS
enables multiple devices (up to 128) of different sizes and types to be connected simultaneously
with thinner and longer cables; its full-duplex signal transmission supports 3.0Gb/s. In addition,
SAS drives can be hot-plugged.
In topologies with more than two connected devices, SAS calls for the use of expander devices
to allow for more than one host to connect to more than one peripheral.
SAS devices can communicate with both SATA and SCSI devices (the backplanes of SAS
devices are identical to SATA devices). A key difference between SCSI and SAS devices is the
addition in SAS devices of two data ports, each of which resides in a different SAS domain. This
enables complete failover redundancy as if one path fails, there is still communication along a
separate and independent path
74:- What is RAID? Type of RAID?
RAID is an acronym that stands for Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks or
Redundant Array of Independent Disks . RAID is a term used in computing. With RAID,
Several hard disks are made into one logical disk. There are different ways this can be done. Each
of the methods that puts the hard disks together has some benefits and drawbacks over using the
Drives as single disks, independent of each other
75:-What are the three main reasons for using RAID?
The main reasons why RAID is used are:
To make the loss of data happen less often. This is done by having several copies of the
Data.
To get more storage space by having many smaller disks .
To get more flexibility (Disks can be changed or added while the system keeps running)
To get the data more quickly.
It is not possible to achieve all of these goals at the same time, so choices need to be made.
There are also some bad things:
Certain choices can protect against data being lost because one (or a number) of disks
failed. They do not protect against the data being deleted or overwritten, though.
After one (or a number) of disk failures, getting the system into a clean state can take a
long time.
· Certain kinds of errors will make it impossible to read the data
76:- Type of RAID?
Raid is nothing but redundant array of independent disk,
 RAID-0: This technique has striping but no redundancy of data. It offers the best performance
but no fault-tolerance.
 RAID-1: This type is also known as disk mirroring and consists of at least two drives that
duplicate the storage of data. There is no striping. Read performance is improved since either
disk can be read at the same time. Write performance is the same as for single disk storage.
RAID-1 provides the best performance and the best fault-tolerance in a multi-user system.
 RAID-2: This type uses striping across disks with some disks storing error checking and
correcting (ECC) information. It has no advantage over RAID-3.
RAID-3: This type uses striping and dedicates one drive to storing parity information. The
Embedded error checking (ECC) information is used to detect errors. Data recovery is
Accomplished by calculating the exclusive OR (XOR) of the information recorded on the other
Drives. Since an I/O operation addresses all drives at the same time, RAID-3 cannot overlap I/O.
For this reason, RAID-3 is best for single-user systems with long record applications.
 RAID-4: This type uses large stripes, which means you can read records from any single
Drive. This allows you to take advantage of overlapped I/O for read operations. Since all write
Operations have to update the parity drive, no I/O overlapping is possible. RAID-4 offers no
Advantage over RAID5 .
RAID-5: This type includes a rotating parity array, thus addressing the write limitation in
RAID-4. Thus, all read and write operations can be overlapped. RAID-5 stores parity
Information but not redundant data (but parity information can be used to reconstruct data).
RAID-5 requires at least three and usually five disks for the array. It's best for multi-user systems
in which performance is not critical or which do few write operations.
 RAID-6: This type is similar to RAID-5 but includes a second parity scheme that is
Distributed across different drives and thus offers extremely high fault- and drive-failure
Tolerance.
RAID-7: This type includes a real-time embedded operating system as a controller, caching
via a high-speed bus, and other characteristics of a stand-alone computer. One vendor offers this
system.
RAID-10: Combining RAID-0 and RAID-1 is often referred to as RAID-10, which offers
Higher performance than RAID-1 but at much higher cost . There are two subtypes: In RAID-0+1,
data is organized as stripes across multiple disks, and then the striped disk sets are mirrored. In
RAID-1+0, the data is mirrored and the mirrors are striped.
RAID-50 (or RAID-5+0): This type consists of a series of RAID-5 groups and striped in
RAID-0 fashion to improve RAID-5 performance without reducing data protection .
RAID-53 (or RAID-5+3): This type uses striping (in RAID-0 style) for RAID-3's virtual disk
blocks. This offers higher performance than RAID-3 but at much higher cost.
 RAID-S (also known as Parity RAID): This is an alternate, proprietary method for striped
parity RAID from EMC Symmetric that is no longer in use on current equipment. It appears to
be similar to RAID-5 with some performance enhancements as well as the enhancements that
come from having a high-speed disk cache on the disk array.
77:- What are the six steps for Laser Printing?
1. Cleaning. The drum is cleaned of any residual toner and electrical charge.
2. Conditioning. The drum is conditioned to contain a high electrical charge.
3. Writing. A laser beam discharges the high charge down to a lower charge, but only in places
Where toner should go .
4. Developing. Toner is placed onto the drum where the charge has been reduced.
5. Transferring. A strong electrical charge draws the toner off the drum onto the paper. This is
the first step that takes place outside the cartridge.
6. Fusing. Heat and pressure fuse the toner to the paper.
78:- What is the difference between PCI-EX x1 and PCI-EX x16?
PCI Express x16 slot is normally provided for graphic card, and PCI Express x1
slot is for other accessorial devices like sound card, TV card, diagnosis card.
U can notice from its name that PCI Express x16 is much faster than PCI Express x1.
An example is a ×8 slot that actually only runs at ×1. These slots allow any ×1, ×2, ×4 or ×8
card, though only running at ×1 speed. This type of socket is called a ×8 (×1 mode) slot,
79:-What is REGISTRY in Windows?
The Windows Registry is a hierarchical database that stores configuration settings
and options on Microsoft Windows operating systems. It contains settings for low-level
operating system components as well as the applications running on the platform: the kernel,
device drivers, services, SAM , user interface and third party applications all make use of the
Registry. The registry also provides a means to access counters for profiling system performance
80:- How would you repair an Unsuccessful Driver Update?
1-Open the device manager to diagnose the problem. You've obviously figured
out that there's a driver error from the error messages every time you keep trying to complete a
specific task, but the Device Manager can give you a better idea of what you're really looking at.
Right click on the "My Computer" Icon on your desktop and select "Properties." On the
Hardware tab, select "Device Manager."
2 Look for the yellow triangle. The Device Manager window will give you a list of all of the
devices connected to your computer. Problematic devices will have a yellow triangle next to
their name in the left column.
3-Right-click on the problematic device and then select "Properties." The Properties window
should have tabs at the top. Under the "Resources" tab, check "Resource Allocation" and
"Modify Resource Settings" to stop driver conflict errors. Select the "Update Driver" button and
then install updates if the driver is outdated.
4-Uninstall the driver if the driver is completely corrupted. Reinstall after the driver has been
removed. If you end up with a faulty driver, restore the original by selecting the "Roll Back
Driver" button.
5-Use the Recovery Console if the Device Manager method does not work by Inserting the
Windows installation disk and restarting your PC. Select R on the Welcome screen and login
(you must be an administrator). Type in "CD Windows\system32\drivers" and select "Enter."
6-Continue in the Recovery Console mode and type in "Ren Driver_Name.sys
Driver_Name.old," hit "Enter" then type "copy CD-Drive:\i386 Driver_Name.sys" and press
"Enter" again. This will copy the original driver to the drivers folder. Once finished, exit
Recovery Console, take the CD out, and restart your computer.
81:- What is the difference between a Workgroup and a Domain?
In a workgroup:
All computers are peers; no computer has control over another computer.
Each computer has a set of user accounts. To use any computer in the workgroup, you
Must  have an account on that computer.
There are typically no more than ten to twenty computers.
All computers must be on the same local network or subnet.
In a domain:
One or more computers are servers. Network administrators use servers to control the
Security and permissions for all computers on the domain . This makes it easy to make
Changes because the changes are automatically made to all computers .
If you have a user account on the domain, you can log on to any computer on the domain
Without needing an account on that computer .
There can be hundreds or thousands of computers.
The computers can be on different local networks.
 Domain:
1) Centralized Administration.
2) Security of Data, User & Groups
3)Server & Clients Based
4)Windows 2000 & 2003 Server or Advance Support For Server Configuration
5)File, Folder & User & Group Permission we can assign.
WORKGROUP:
1)No Centralized Administration.
2)Not much security for Data, User & Groups. (Depends on Configuration)
3)No Server & Client Matter..Each pc reacts like a Client as well as Server.
4)Basically Windows 98 & XP is going to used in Clients side.
5)We can assign permission to drives & folder & files but much security than Domain
82:- What are the major advantages of working in a Domain
Model?
Advantage of Domain Environment 1.Data Cetertralization 2.Security 3.Effictive
Permission 4.Single Platform to mange whole network 5.User can login to any computer and
access their resources any time and much more.
83:- What is an Answer file?
The Windows XP System Preparation file (Sysprep.exe), the Riprap tool, and
Answer file functionality are different from those same elements in Microsoft Windows NT 4.0.
Additionally, the name and location of the Answer file have been changed.
MORE INFORMATION
The following parameters can be used with the Sysprep.exe (and Riprap) tool:
 pnp - force Plug and Play enumeration on next restart
quiet - run in Silent mode, with no dialog boxes
 nosidgen - do not regenerate security ID on restart
reboot - automatically restart when the Sysprep.exe tool is finished
 mini - Configures Windows XP Professional to use Mini-Setup instead of Windows Welcome.
This option has no effect on Windows XP Home Edition, where the first-run experience is
always Windows Welcome. This switch also forces SysPrep to recognize the Sysprep.inf file.
84:- How do you perform an unattended installation on Windows
XP?
The three methods of performing an unattended installation of Windows XP are:
· Network based (with an Answer file)
· RIS based (with either an Answer file or from an image)
· CD ROM based (with an Answer file)
The Answer file contains the settings you are prompted for during an attended installation. The
default name for the Answer file is unattend.txt but this can be changed as required. This means
that several different Answer files can be created, allowing for tailored installations for different
user types or groups. On a network installation the Answer file will be stored in the i386 folder.
The command line input is:
winnt.exe /u:unattend.txt
For an unattended CD ROM installation the Answer file should be renamed to winnt.sif (being
Careful to ensure the file extension is changed, rather than just renaming a .txt file) and placed on
a floppy disk inserted into the computer. Answer files can be created using the setupmgr utility.
RIS stands for Remote Installation Services. This is used to deploy a clean installation onto a
Target computer .
The target computer needs to establish a network connection to a Windows 2000 or a Windows
Server 2003 RIS server. This requires that the target computer has a PXE (Pre Execution
Environment) compliant network adapter. If the network adapter is not PXE compliant, most
major manufacturers devices can still be used is the target computer boots from a RIS Boot
Floppy Disk.
The target computer should be configured to use the network as its first boot device. If this
cannot be done (i.e. BIOS not allowing this as an option) admin can create a RIS boot floppy
disk using the rbfg.exe command located on the RIS server.
There are two types of custom RIS installation:
A clean installation with Answer files that were automatically created during the
installation of RIS.
An image-based installation in conjunction with the RIS server . The image contains the
operating an also any necessary applications. This saves time installing applications on
individual computers. Custom images can be created for different user types and groups.
PXE will located the RIS server and prompt the user of the target computer to press F12 to
connect. The user then enters his domain username and password.
85:-What is SysPrep?
The System Preparation (SysPrep) tool prepares an installation of Windows for
duplication, auditing, and customer delivery. Duplication, also called imaging, enables you to
capture a customized Windows image that you can reuse throughout an organization. Audit
mode enables you to add additional device drivers or applications to a Windows installation.
After you install the additional drivers and applications, you can test the integrity of the
Windows installation. SysPrep also enables you to prepare an image to be delivered to a
customer. When the customer boots Windows, Windows Welcome starts.
SysPrep must be used only to configure new installations of Windows. You can run SysPrep as
many times as required to build and to configure your installation of Windows. However, you
can reset Windows activation only up to three times. You must not use SysPrep to reconfigure an
existing installation of Windows that has already been deployed. Use SysPrep only to configure
new installations of Windows.
86:- How do you use SysPrep?
The SysPrep utility can be used in three different contexts:
1. Disk duplication. Using SysPrep to prepare images for disk duplication allows you to
copy fully installed systems onto similar hardware. SysPrep modifies the local computer
Security ID (SID) so that it is unique to each computer. For more information, see How
to Use SysPrep to Prepare Images for Disk Duplication.
2. Auditing. When you use SysPrep after auditing the computer (using the 􀂱nosidgen
command􀂱line option), SysPrep will be ready for the end user to run Windows. For more
information, see How to Use SysPrep for Auditing Installations.
3. Automating Mini􀂱Setup. SysPrep creates a shortened GUI􀂱mode Setup that takes five
or six minutes instead of the usual 45 to 60 minutes, and it prompts the end user only for
required user􀂱specific information, such as accepting the EULA, entering the Product
Key, and entering the user name and company name. To use SysPrep in this mode,
preinstall Windows XP on the local computer, and then run SysPrep with the 􀂱nosidgen
parameter, using the steps below. For more information, see How to Use SysPrep to
Automate Mini􀂱Setup.
87:- What is the major difference between Newsid and SysPrep?
The System Preparation tool (SysPrep) is a technology that you can use with other
deployment tools to install Microsoft Windows operating systems with minimal intervention by
an administrator or technician.
88:- What is the function of the pagefile.sys file?
PAGEFILE.SYS is the virtual memory file Windows uses. Typically, on install,
Windows sets the size of the file at around 1.5 times your physical memory size however this
size will vary depending on the amount of free space on the disk when the file is established and
other factors. Most will find the default size works fine but it can be changed. Windows uses this
file for its normal operation however if you really need the space you can delete it after turning
the virtual memory option off but be aware that this can cause extreme instability in Windows to
the point where it might stop
NEWSID.EXE is an executable from the software Newsid by Sysinternals . NEWSID.EXE is
most commonly found under the directory "Newsid" with a date of creation
89:- What is the function of the hiberfil.sys file?
HIBERFIL.SYS is a file the system creates when the computer goes into
hibernation mode. Windows uses the file when it is turned back on. If you don't need hibernation
mode and want to delete the file you need to turn the hibernation option off before Windows will
allow you to delete the file. The procedure for turning hibernation off differs markedly between
Windows XP and Vista. The file size depends largely on the size of active RAM in the computer
as the contents of the file are basically a RAM image.
· Windows XP
· Procedure for Windows XP. This procedure makes use of the graphical user interface.
o Start | Control Panel | Power Options
o Go to the Hibernate Tab.
o Uncheck the Enable Hibernation box if you don't need the hibernation function.
o The file should now be able to be deleted.
90:- When should you use each of the fallowing tools: System
Restore, LKGC and Recovery Console?
In the case that your system is failing to boot, you may want to perform a System
Recovery (not to be confused with System Restore or Automated System Recovery, both of
which are covered elsewhere). To access the System Recovery Console, boot from CD and
press R once all the drivers have loaded. You will need the password of an account with
Administrator privileges to enter Recovery mode.
In the Recovery Console, you can perform various actions that can help you get the computer to
a working state again or at least allow you to perform disk operations so that they are accessible
again. We do not have time to cover all of the console commands, but here are a few important
ones
One of the best features of Windows XP, especially for technicians, is System Restore. It allows
you to revert a system to the state it was in at a previous time with minimal data loss (only
registry information is changed). It can be especially useful after a user has installed malicious
software, such as Adware and Spyware, or has installed a harmful or incorrect driver. System
Restore􀂶s saved states are called Restore Points, which are by default created at a certain
time each day or before any significant change to the state (installation of new hardware or
software, for example). As mentioned, by default, Restore Points are created automatically. In
addition, they can be created manually through the System Restore tool located in System Tools
of the Accessories folder.
91:- What is MMC?
Microsoft Management Console enables system administrators to create special
tools to delegate specific administrative tasks to users or groups. Microsoft provides standard
tools with the operating system that perform everyday administrative tasks that users need to
accomplish. These are part of the All Users profile of the computer and located in the
Administrative Tools group on the Startup menu. Saved as MMC console (.msc) files, these
custom tools can be sent by e-mail, shared in a network folder, or posted on the Web. They can
also be assigned to users, groups, or computers with system policy settings. A tool can be scaled
up and down, integrated seamlessly into the operating system, repackaged, and customized.
92:-What is gpedit.msc?
Group Policy is a feature of the Microsoft Windows NT family of operating
systems. Group Policy is a set of rules that control the working environment of user accounts and
computer accounts. Group Policy provides the centralized management and configuration of
operating systems, applications, and users' settings in an Active Directory environment. In other
words, Group Policy in part controls what users can and cannot do on a computer system.
Although Group Policy is more often seen in use for enterprise environments, it is also common
in schools, smaller businesses, and other kinds of smaller organizations. Group Policy is often
used to restrict certain actions that may pose potential security risks, for example: to block access
to the Task Manager, restrict access to certain folders, disable the downloading of executable
files, and so on.
93:- How would you use the MMC to manage other servers on your
network?
Using three custom created MMC consoles, I can manage all aspects of my
network -- locally or remotely (via the VPN).
The first is my "Domain Console", where I add snap-ins for AD controllers (sites, users, etc), as
well as all of the other servers. This allows me to manage DFS, Exchange, events and shares all
in one place without opening a new console for each server.
My second console is the "Computer Console". As I get support calls about our Win2k
machines, I add the computer of the client I am speaking with to this console. This way, I can
manage all aspects of that machine in the computer management snap-in. It also helps me keep
an eye on new shares the user is adding to their machine.
My third console is my "Remote Connect Console". In this console, there are only snap-ins
related to remote connectivity. For my convenience, I also add the computer management snap in
for the servers involved in remote connectivity.
These three consoles are invaluable to me. It seems almost too obvious to use these, but I have
encountered several admins that use the default MMC console and spend a lot of time connecting
to resources to manage them. I hope this tip helps you as much as it has helped me.
94:- What new in the Windows Vista Local Policy?
Windows Vista delivers a substantial update to the Group Policy infrastructure.
Yet as organizations around the world deploy Windows Vista, many administrators probably
won't notice much of a difference in how they work because the numerous changes in Group
Policy functions
all take place under the hood. What administrators will find, however, is that Windows Vista􀂌
Group Policy is much more powerful than it was in previous versions.
Prior to Windows Vista, Group Policy processing occurred within a process called win logon.
Win logon had a lot of responsibility, which included getting people logged on to their desktops,
as well as servicing the various Group Policy chores. Group Policy is now its own Windows®
service. What's more, it's hardened, which means that it cannot be stopped nor can an
administrator take ownership of the permissions upon Group Policy in order to then turn it off.
These changes enhance the overall reliability of the Group Policy engine.
95:- What is the difference between User Privileges and User
Permissions?
User rights generally refer to logon capabilities: who can logon interactively, as a
batch job, as a service, over the network, over Terminal Services, etc. These all require a certain
"right" and these rights can also be denied to groups or individual users.
Permissions relate to the capability of accessing an object, such as a file, a registry entry, a
service, a printer, a share, etc. Again these can be granted or denied but there is more granularity
here as there are several permission types: read, write, delete, etc. Permissions are collected into
Access Control Lists (ACLs) with each entry being termed an Access Control Entry (ACE) .
To complete the trio in common parlance, there are privileges. These relate to overriding
capabilities within Windows such as backup, restore, take ownership, debug, etc. If you hold the
backup privilege, for example, you are allowed to read all files, regardless of permissions on
those files. Privileges trump permissions.
Confusingly, privileges are sometimes referred to as rights, even in official MS documentation.
in the days of NT4, some were also called "abilities" so you'll note the careful use of the generic
term, "capability" above.
96:- What is Safe Mode?
A specific way for the Windows operating system to load when there is a system critical
problem interfering with the normal operation of Windows. Safe mode allows the user to
troubleshoot the operating system to determine what is not functioning properly. Safe mode is a
troubleshooting option for Windows that starts your computer in a limited state. Only the basic
files and drivers necessary to run Windows are started. The words "Safe Mode" appear in the
corners of the display to identify which Windows mode you are using. If an existing problem
does not reappear when you start in safe mode, you can eliminate the default settings and basic
device drivers as possible causes.
97:- Which logs can be found in Event Viewer?
Event Viewer, a component of Microsoft's Windows NT line of operating systems,
lets administrators and users view the event logs on a local or remote machine. The Event Log
Service records application, security, and system events in Event Viewer. With the event logs in
Event Viewer, you can obtain information about your hardware, software, and system
Components, and monitor security events on a local or remote computer. Event logs can help you
Identify and diagnose the source of current system problems, or help you predict potential system
Problems.
98:- Can you upgrade XP Home Edition to Server 2003?
Answer84- No
99:-What is the difference between Intranet and internet?
There is one major distinction between an intranet and internet. The Internet is an open public space, while an intranet is designed for private space. An Intranet may be access by a internet, but as a rule it is protected by a password and accessible only to employees or other authorized users. From within a company an intranet server may respond much more quickly than a typical website. This is because the public internet is at the mercy of traffic spikes server breakdown and other problems that may slow the network. Within a company user have much more bandwidth and network hardware may be more reliable.  This make it easier to server high bandwidth content, such as audio and video, over and internet.
100:- Define the term of protocol?
Protocol is a standard way to communication across a network. A protocol is the “language” of the network. It is method by which two dissimilar systems can communicate. TCP-IP is protocol which runs on network Layer.
101:-Define the file transfer protocol?
File transfer protocol is a standard internet protocol, is the simplest way to exchange file between computers on the internet. Like Hyper text transfer protocol (HTTP), which transfer displayable web pages and related files, and the simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP), which transfer E-mails? FTP is an application protocol that uses the internet’s TCP/IP protocols.FTP is commonly transfer web page file from the other creator on  the other computer that act as a server for everyone on the internet. It is also commonly use to download programs and other files to your computer from other server.
102:-Explain the 7 Layer of OSI model?




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